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Bornholmsk also has special endings for the 2nd person, when a pronoun follows immediately after the ending, namely -st in the singular and -en in the plural: God awtan liden Elna, gods fredd, God awtan, min deilia rosa!Bornholmsk has retained three distinct grammatical genders, like Icelandic or Norwegian, and unlike standard Danish or Swedish.The gender inflection exists not only in the definite article (like in Norwegian and certain Danish dialects), but also in the adjectives: -er is the old ending of the masculine nominative still extant in German (-er), Icelandic (-ur) and Faroese (-ur), but lost in the other Scandinavian dialects (except for certain old phrases like Danish en ungersvend, originally en unger svend, "a young fellow"). Feminine nouns have -er or, when they end in a vowel in the singular, -ar.It was originally part of the East Danish dialect continuum, which includes the dialects of southern Sweden, but became isolated in the Danish dialect landscape after 1658, when Sweden annexed Skåne, Halland and Blekinge.The language is more generally spoken than written, despite the existence of several Bornholmsk-Danish dictionaries and a regular Bornholmsk article in the local newspaper.
Dating for gifte bornholm disease
Bornholmsk does not have the stød characteristic of most varieties of Danish, but on the other hand, it does not have the musical accent characteristic of Swedish and Norwegian either.In the list, there is special emphasis on the developments that set Bornholmsk apart from Standard Danish. Old Icelandic) forms have been quoted instead of Old Danish forms.Ad gubbań hań vill freia, jâ vedd; Men toustuiń, vastu jo tosa. Te öfröl ded lakkar well snarara, du, En kånna, - ded bler nokk for siĺĺa; Men jâ går å stjærnar på piblana nu, Forr jâ e nå nu så viĺĺa. God aften, lille Elna, guds fred God aften, min dejlige rose! That the old man will court you I know, But if you took him, you would be a foolish lass. ˈdeː sɔn iɲ ˈstoːʁ ˈflɑːðɐ ˈsteːn dɛɲ e ˈtʰʁeː ˈɡɔŋːa sɔ ˈstoːʁ sɔm ˈboːʁəð ˈhɛːʁ vɛl - ɔ dɛɲ ˈlidʑəʁ veːʁ ˈvɛːɲ sɔm ˈkʰɔmːəʁ ɔwːəʁ fʁɔ ˈkʰliːnby ɔ ɡɔʁ ˈɔwːəʁ imoð ˈkʰoːdɑːl tʰeː - ɔ dɛːʁ ˈdʑikʰ jo ˈalsɔ ˈsawnəð i ˈɡamla ˈdɑː - fɔʁ ˈkʰliːnbyˌboːʁna di ˈhøːʁə meː tʰe ˈibskəʁ ˈsɔwn ɔ ˈibskəʁ ˈtɕɛʁkʰə sɔ ˈnɔʁ di ˈdœː di ˈskʰolːe hɑː ˈbɔːʁan tʰe ˈibskəʁ sɔ ˈbɑːʁ di ˈdɛɲ pʰɔ ˈsɔn e ˈbɛːʁiɲə - ɔ sɔ ˈviːlaða di ˈdɛːʁ pʰɔ - pʰɔ ˈlɛːjˌsteːniɲ - ɔ sɔ ˈhɑːð di jo ˈmɑːð i ˈkʰɔʁːiɲ - ˈbʁɛɲevinsˌflaskəʁ ˈmeː sɛˈfølːi - di ˈskʰolːə ˈhɑ dɔm en ˈsyːpʰ ɔ ˈstɔʁtɕa dɔm ˈpʰɔː ɔ sɔ ˈvɑːŋkʰaðː di ˈviːðəʁa fɔʁ di ˈmɔtʰːe jo ˈentʰə ˈsɛtʰːa ˈtɕiːstan pʰɔ ˈjoːʁən - mæŋ kʰu jo ˈtʰʁoːˀ æ d̥i ˈɔnʌˌjoɐ̯ˀd̥isɡ̊ə hʌl ˈtˢe pʰɔ ˈsʌn ˈsd̥ɛːð̞ɐ ...The small island has only about 40,000 inhabitants, yet the language is divided into five main dialects, not even counting Danish.
As an example, eye would be spelled iva in some regions, but elsewhere it would be øja, which is quite close to the Danish word øje.
Until the 20th century, Bornholmsk inflected the verbs in number, e.g.
jâ bińńer "I bind" ~ vi bińńa "we bind", jâ bânt "I bound" ~ vi bonne "we bound".
An official standardised orthography of Bornholmsk does not exist since Standard Danish is taught in schools and is the language of all public communication.
However, dialect texts use a simplified phonetical alphabet (invented by K. Lyngby in the 19th century and also employed in Espersen's dictionary of Bornholmsk): A stressed syllable always contains either a long vowel or a long consonant (like in Swedish, but unlike Standard Danish, where there are no long consonants).